Journal directory listing - Volume 48 Number 2 (2003) - Education【48(2)】October

The Development of Naming Speed in K-3 Author: Shih-Jay Tzeng(Department of Special Education,National Taitung University),Shang-Chen Chiu(Department of Special Education,National Kaohsiung Normal University),Yen-Tung Lin(Department of Special Education,National Kaohsiung Normal University)

Vol.&No.:Vol. 48, No. 2
Date:October 2003


This study developed a norm-referenced naming-speed test battery for children from kindergarten to grade 3. The cross-sectional changes for various naming-speed measures across different age groups and their relation to reading-related variables were described. Kindergartners received digit, color, object, and color-object alternative naming tests. In addition to these four tests, first to third graders also received a phonetic-symbol naming test and an alternative test composed of digits, phonetic symbols, colors and objects. A Chinese character recognition test and a reading comprehension screening test were administered to 2nd and 3rd graders, while the first graders received the Chinese character recognition test only.
There were three major findings in this study. Firstly, with regard to reliability and validity, statistical analysis indicated that these naming-speed tests had strong inter-rater reliability and alternative-form reliability. Given the fact that naming speeds negatively correlated with scores on the Chinese character recognition test and reading comprehension screening test, as well as on reading achievement, which matched our theory-based predictions, we were convinced that naming-speed tests had good construct validity. Secondly, regarding the developmental features of naming, as reported in the literature naming-speed increased with age from K-3. The results also showed a gender difference among the kindergarteners: girls named faster than boys. The difference however vanished with primary school students. The naming-speed tests used in the order of fast-to-slow were digit naming, phonetic-symbol naming, object naming and color naming. Thirdly, a cluster analysis of participants' naming speeds was conducted and four groups were distinguished. These four groups were described as fast-namers, average-namers, slow-namers, and very-slow-namers. The size of the fast-namer group increased rapidly with the grade-level. The inter-group differences regarding digit- and phonetic-symbol naming speeds diminished with grade-level. However, the color- and object-naming speeds for slow-namers remained significantly slower than for fast- and average-namers, regardless of grade-level. Notably, there were students who were not able to finish the naming tasks in all age groups. Suggestions and recommendations for further study were also discussed.

Keywords:double-deficit hypothesis naming speed reading comprehension character recognition

《Full Text》

APA FormatTzeng, S.-J., Chiu, S.-C., & Lin, Y.-T. (2003). The Development of Naming Speed in K-3. Journal of National Taiwan Normal University: Education, 48(2), 261-290. doi:10.3966/2073753X2003104802007