Journal directory listing - Volume 21-30 (1976-1985) - Volume 27 (1982)

The Rules of Behavior in Da-Ko Academy
Author: Yu-fu Chen(Department of Chinese College of Liberal Arts)


Da-Ko Academy founded by Kan-Chyen Jan in 1517 was the first-private academy in Ming Dynasty (1368-1643). There were sixty-one rules of behavior which Kan-chyen Jan urged his students to observe.
From these rules we can learn something about the private callege education of Ming Dynasty in general and Kan-Chyen Jan's educational theories in particular.
1. Da-Ko Academy, just like the other 29 private academies founded by Kan-Chyen Jan, did not charge its students tuition, board and lodging. It was a very good tradition in old China.
2. Besides regular daily lessons, students were ordered to practice a form of physical regimen (sitting in deep medlitation) from 4 o'clock to 7 o'clock in the afternoon. It was very useful for improving one's self-conscious and self-control.
3. Students should learn to avert their minds from all evil thoughts in order to avoid doing evil.
4. Kan-Chyen Jan taught his students to become sages by constantly searching natural laws, which are fundamental to human nature and are to be discovered by human reason.
5. There were many ceremonials in Da-Ko Academy, most of which were intended to teach students to do honor to the teacher, to respect the teacher's teachings, and to befriend their fellow students.
6. "To be a sage and to be an official are all the same," said Kan-Chyen Jan. It means that Da-Ko Academy would help students to have good morals and to prepare for the civil examination at the same time.

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